• Understand and use the relationships between the four operations, and the principles (not the names) of the arithmetic laws.
  • Know multiplication facts up to 10 x 10.
  • Add several numbers.
  • Use doubling and halving.
  • Partition to multiply mentally TU x U.
  • Extend written methods to:
    • HTU x U and U.t x U;
    • TU x TU;
    • HTU ÷ U.
  • Divide £.p by a two-digit number to give £.p.
  • Round up or down after division, depending on the context.
  • Develop calculator skills and use a calculator effectively.
  • Use all four operations to solve word problems, including time.


  • Round positive whole numbers to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000 and decimals to the nearest whole number or one decimal place.
  • Understand addition, subtraction, multiplication and division as they apply to whole numbers and decimals; know how to use the laws of arithmetic and inverse operations.
  • Know and use the order of operations, including brackets.
  • Consolidate and extend mental methods of calculation to include decimals, fractions and percentages, accompanied where appropriate by suitable jottings; solve simple word problems mentally.
  • Make and justify estimates and approximations of calculations.
  • Multiply and divide three-digit by two-digit whole numbers; extend to multiplying and dividing decimals with one or two places by single-digit whole numbers.
  • Check a result by considering whether it is of the right order of magnitude and by working the problem backwards.
  • Carry out calculations with more than one step using brackets and the memory; use the square root and sign change keys.
  • Break a complex calculation into simpler steps, choosing and using appropriate and efficient operations, methods and resources, including ICT.
  • Present and interpret solutions in the context of the original problem; explain and justify methods and conclusions, orally and in writing.


  • Round positive numbers to any given power of 10; round decimals to the nearest whole number or to one or two decimal places.
  • Recall products such as 0.7 and 6, and 0.03 and 8.
  • Multiply and divide integers and decimals including by decimals such as 0.6 and 0.06; understand where to position the decimal point by considering equivalent calculations.
  • Give solutions to an appropriate degree of accuracy in the context of the problem.

Key Vocabulary:

  • round, nearest, (1d.p.), approximately, sum, total, difference, product, quotient, divisor, remainder, factor, multiple, order of operations, brackets.

Suggested Lesson Outcomes:



Teaching & Learning Resources:

Mental Methods Resources
Order Of Operations (BIDMAS) Resources
Multiplication Resources
Division Resources
Addition Resources
Subtraction Resources
Rounding Resources
Estimation Resources
Calculator Resources